What is the McKinsey 7S Model? Definition, Elements, Strategy, Examples, and Pros/Cons

Definition of McKinsey 7S Model

The McKinsey 7S Model, developed in the 1980s by McKinsey consultants Tom Peters, Robert Waterman, and Julien Philips, stands as a pivotal tool for organizational analysis. Rooted in seven key elements, it aims to predict organizational effectiveness by scrutinizing the interplay of both hard and soft components.

The hard elements, including Strategy, Structure, and Systems, represent the easily identifiable aspects influenced by management. In contrast, the soft elements – Shared Values, Skills, Style, and Staff – are more intangible, and rooted in corporate culture.

This model’s historical origins trace back to the consultants’ quest to devise a comprehensive framework beyond traditional strategic models. The strategy involves a company’s approach to gain a competitive edge, while Structure delves into organizational hierarchy. Systems encompass daily procedures, and Shared Values serve as the core.

Skills, Style, and Staff complete the model, emphasizing competencies, management style, and human resources, respectively. Recognizing its timeless relevance, the McKinsey 7S Framework continues to be a guiding force for businesses worldwide, providing a holistic lens to enhance organizational performance.

Elements of McKinsey 7S Model

As the name suggests, the McKinsey Model consists of seven elements:

  • Strategy
  • Structure
  • System
  • Shared Values
  • Skills
  • Style
  • Staff

Of these seven elements, 3 are hard elements and 4 are soft elements. They are:

Hard Elements:

Hard elements of the McKinsey 7S Model are tangible, easy to identify, and easily influenced by the management.

  • Strategy
  • Structure
  • System

Soft Elements:

Soft elements, on the other hand, are intangible and driven by the organizational corporate culture.

  • Skills
  • Style
  • Staff
  • Shared Values

Now, let’s explore each of these elements of the McKinsey 7S Model in detail:


In the McKinsey 7S Model, the strategy encompasses a company’s approach to gaining a competitive advantage and achieving long-term goals. It involves decisions and actions aligned with the organization’s vision, mission, and values.

Why it is important?: A well-crafted strategy, when harmonized with other elements, contributes to sustainable competitive advantage and organizational success.


Structure refers to the organizational layout, delineating the chain of command, reporting relationships, and the division of tasks. It represents how different units and divisions are organized within the company.

Why it is important?: A clear and efficient structure ensures smooth daily operations, and accountability, and facilitates effective decision-making.

Read More: What is Resistance To Change?


Systems encompass the daily processes and procedures that govern a company’s operations. This includes both core processes like product development and support activities such as human resources or accounting.

Why it is important?: Efficient systems establish workflows, and decision-making chains, and contribute to the standardization of operations within the organization.

Shared Values

At the core of the model, shared values represent the collective value system integral to organizational culture. These values include norms, and behavior expectations, and are typically outlined in company guidelines.

Why it is important?: Shared values serve as the foundation for the other six elements, influencing the overall behavior and attitudes of the organization’s workforce.


Skills pertain to the competencies and capabilities of the organization’s human resources. This includes the skill set of employees, core competencies, and their role in achieving sustainable competitive advantage.

Why it is important?: The right skill set ensures that employees can effectively contribute to the organization’s goals and objectives.


Style refers to the management style prevalent in the company, encompassing the actions, behaviors, and interactions of leadership. It also includes informal rules and the overall culture within the organization.

Why it is important?: Leadership style influences employee satisfaction, and productivity, and shapes the overall organizational culture.

Read More: 15 Strategies To Overcome Resistance To Change


The staff involves decisions related to talent management, human resources, recruitment, and the overall workforce. It considers factors such as workforce size, diversity, training, and employee benefits.

Why it is important?: The strategic management of human resources is crucial for building a motivated and skilled workforce, contributing to organizational success.

Pros and Cons of McKinsey 7S Framework

Let’s explore the key pros and cons of McKinsey’s 7S’s.


  • Holistic Analysis: The model provides a holistic approach, considering both hard and soft elements, offering a comprehensive analysis of organizational effectiveness.
  • Alignment of Elements: By emphasizing the alignment of strategy, structure, and other elements, it ensures that different facets of an organization work cohesively towards common goals.
  • Strategic Fit Focus: The model goes beyond traditional models by incorporating seven elements, offering a strategic fit perspective that considers internal factors influencing organizational success.
  • Change Facilitation: It serves as a valuable tool for implementing change, facilitating organizations in realigning their elements to adapt to evolving market conditions or strategic shifts.


  • Time-Consuming: The model demands extensive research and benchmarking, making it time-consuming for organizations, especially when seeking detailed insights into each element.
  • Internal Focus Only: It solely concentrates on internal elements, neglecting external factors that may impact organizational performance, potentially providing an incomplete strategic perspective.
  • Senior Management Dependency: Effective utilization of the model often requires active involvement from senior management, and their availability may pose challenges, especially in busy corporate environments.
  • Potential Oversimplification: While the model aims for a comprehensive view, there’s a risk of oversimplification, as intricate organizational dynamics may not be fully captured by the model’s seven-element framework.

Read More: Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model 

How To Implement McKinsey 7S Model Effectively?

Here are the 7 strategies you can use to effectively implement the McKinsey 7S Model in practice:

Leadership Commitment

Ensure strong commitment from top leadership. Leaders should actively endorse the implementation, emphasizing its importance for strategic alignment and organizational success. Their commitment sets the tone for the entire process.

Comprehensive Data Collection

Conduct thorough data collection for each S (Strategy, Structure, Systems, Shared Values, Skills, Style, and Staff). Utilize surveys, interviews, and performance metrics to gather detailed insights, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the organization.

Cross-Functional Collaboration

Foster collaboration across departments. Involve representatives from different functional areas to provide diverse perspectives. This ensures a holistic evaluation of each element and promotes a more integrated approach to organizational design.

Alignment Workshops and Training

Conduct workshops and training sessions to enhance understanding of the 7S Model among employees. This empowers staff at all levels to comprehend the importance of alignment and actively contribute to the process.

Iterative Approach

Implement the model iteratively. Begin with a pilot phase to test the effectiveness of proposed changes. Use feedback to refine strategies before scaling the implementation across the entire organization, minimizing disruptions.

Technology Integration

Leverage technology for seamless integration. Utilize project management tools, collaboration platforms, and data analytics to streamline the implementation process. Technology enhances communication, data sharing, and overall efficiency.

Read More: The 5 Key Values of Organizational Development

Continuous Monitoring and Adaptation

Establish a system for continuous monitoring. Regularly assess the organization’s alignment and adapt strategies as needed. Environmental changes or shifts in organizational goals may require adjustments to maintain effective alignment.

Examples of McKinsey 7S Model

Now, let’s explore how different companies have implemented the McKinsey 7S Model and what they have achieved through it.

Apple Inc.:

Apple strategically aligns its elements using the McKinsey 7S Model. The company’s strategy focuses on innovation and design excellence, evident in its products like the iPhone and MacBook. Apple’s organizational structure, characterized by a flat hierarchy and cross-functional teams, enhances collaboration and creativity.

The seamless integration of systems, such as supply chain management and retail operations, ensures efficient daily operations. Shared values, rooted in a commitment to excellence and user-centric design, shape the company culture. Apple invests in developing the skills of its workforce, emphasizing creativity and technical expertise. The management style, led by figures like Steve Jobs and Tim Cook, sets a tone of visionary leadership. The staff, carefully selected and trained, contribute to Apple’s success with their diverse talents.

McDonald’s Corporation

McDonald’s utilizes the McKinsey 7S Model to align its organizational elements. The company’s strategy revolves around cost leadership and global expansion. The organizational structure, featuring a flat hierarchy in individual outlets, ensures efficient daily operations. McDonald’s implements standardized systems for food production, supply chain management, and customer service.

Shared values emphasize customer satisfaction, community engagement, and employee training. Skills development programs ensure that staff possesses the necessary competencies. The management style, focused on efficiency and consistency, contributes to the company’s success. McDonald’s invests in staff recruitment, training, and benefits, creating a cohesive and diverse workforce.

Tesla, Inc.:

Tesla employs the McKinsey 7S Model for strategic alignment. The company’s strategy centers on sustainable energy and technological innovation. Tesla’s decentralized structure promotes agility and quick decision-making. Advanced systems govern manufacturing processes, supply chain management, and customer interactions. Shared values emphasize environmental responsibility and cutting-edge technology.

Tesla prioritizes skills development, attracting top talent in engineering and innovation. The management style, influenced by Elon Musk, fosters a culture of risk-taking and ambitious goals. The staff, known for their technical expertise, contributes to Tesla’s position as a leader in electric vehicles and renewable energy solutions.

Read Next: Lewin’s Change Model – 3 Stages

Leave a Comment