Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model – A Complete Step-by-Step Guide

What is Kotter’s 8 Step Change Model?

Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model is a strategic framework that guides organizations through successful organizational change and digital innovation. Introduced by John Kotter, the model comprises eight sequential steps, starting with creating a sense of urgency and culminating in incorporating changes into organizational culture.

Emphasizing the importance of stakeholder buy-in, the model addresses key facets such as forming a guiding coalition, building a strategic vision, and generating short-term wins. While recognized for its simplicity and stakeholder focus, potential drawbacks include a lack of detailed planning and a sequential, time-consuming nature.

Four guiding principles—Leadership and Management, Head and Heart, Select Few and Diverse Many, and “Have To” and “Want To”—underscore the need for concurrent execution and broad support at various organizational levels. NetApp‘s success using this model highlights its effectiveness in achieving strategic goals, fostering growth, and navigating industry challenges.

8 Steps of Kotter’s Change Model

Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Model is a renowned framework for steering organizational change successfully. Introduced by John Kotter, this model guides businesses through a strategic process aimed at fostering a culture of innovation and adaptability.

Now, let’s explore each step of the Eight Step Change Model of Kotter in detail:

Create a Sense of Urgency

The initial step focuses on overcoming resistance to change by instilling a sense of urgency. This involves communicating a compelling case for change, addressing existing issues, and highlighting the benefits.

Kotter emphasizes the “Head + Heart” principle, appealing to both logic and emotion to garner support. For instance, illustrates how adopting new technology can streamline processes and improve outcomes.

Form a Guiding Coalition

Recognizing that effective change isn’t a solitary endeavor, Kotter emphasizes building a guiding coalition. This coalition consists of influential individuals across various organizational levels who support the change initiative.

This step aligns with the “Leadership + Management” and “Select Few + Diverse Many” principles, ensuring a diverse group of leaders support the change and delegate responsibilities effectively.

Create a Strategic Vision

A well-defined vision is crucial for successful change implementation. Kotter advocates for creating a strategic vision that outlines milestones and deliverables, providing clarity to all stakeholders.

This aligns with the principles of “Head + Heart,” ensuring that employees understand and resonate with the vision, and the “Select Few + Diverse Many,” as the guiding coalition plays a pivotal role in articulating and reinforcing this vision.

Initiate Change Communication

Communication is integral in change management. Kotter stresses the need to consistently communicate the vision and implementation plan. Transparency and addressing concerns are vital in gaining organizational support.

This aligns with the principles of effective communication and illustrates the importance of connecting the change to various operational aspects, from training to performance reviews.

Remove Barriers to Change

Identifying and addressing potential barriers is crucial for smooth change implementation. Kotter recognizes the top-down approach may face resistance, emphasizing the importance of understanding and dismantling obstacles early.

This step corresponds with the need for clear communication and addresses potential challenges like lack of clarity, internal resistance, and change fatigue.

Read More: Lewin’s Change Model 

Generate Short-Term Wins

Celebrating short-term victories is essential to maintain momentum and motivate employees throughout the change journey. Kotter advises recognizing and rewarding achievements, aligning with the “Have To” + “Want To” principle.

This step acknowledges the long and challenging nature of change and emphasizes the importance of acknowledging progress to keep teams engaged.

Make Change a Continuous Process

Avoiding complacency post-implementation is critical. Kotter recommends setting SMART goals and continuously analyzing and improving. This step aligns with the principle of ongoing commitment and learning and emphasizes the importance of long-term sustainability.

Incorporate Changes into Organizational Culture

For lasting change, it must become ingrained in the organizational culture. Kotter’s model recognizes the need for behavioral change, encouraging continuous training and reinforcement until the change becomes a habit. Success stories and continuous improvements ensure that the change is deeply embedded in the organization.

Read More: 7 Steps of Organizational Development Process

Principles in Kotter’s Change Model

Previously, we have mentioned principles while defining Kotter’s eight steps. Now, let’s define the 4 principles of Kotter’s change model:

Leadership and Management

Kotter emphasizes the critical role of both leadership and management in driving successful change. Leadership sets the vision, inspiring and motivating individuals to embrace the change. On the other hand, effective management ensures that the necessary steps are taken to realize that vision.

It’s the combination of visionary leadership and strategic management that propels the change initiative forward. This principle recognizes that without the support and alignment of both aspects, the change process may face significant challenges.

Head and Heart

The “Head and Heart” principle acknowledges the importance of appealing to both rationality and emotions during the change journey. While logic and data are essential to convey the necessity and benefits of the change, the emotional aspect connects individuals on a personal level.

Communicating how the change will positively impact employees’ lives, job satisfaction, or prospects creates a more compelling case for adoption. This principle ensures a holistic approach to change communication, catering to both intellectual understanding and emotional engagement.

Read More: 10 Objectives of Organizational Development

Select Few and Diverse Many

Effective change leadership involves more than a singular champion; it requires a diverse team of supporters. The “Select Few and Diverse Many” principle advocates for forming a guiding coalition comprising a select group of influential leaders and a diverse representation from various organizational levels.

The core group provides leadership, while the diverse many bring valuable perspectives and experiences. This ensures that the change initiative is not confined to a single perspective but benefits from a broad array of insights, fostering inclusivity and support.

“Have To” and “Want To”

This principle recognizes the dual nature of motivation in driving change. While individuals may recognize the necessity (“Have To”) of the change from a logical standpoint, true commitment arises when there’s a genuine desire (“Want To”) to embrace the change.

Kotter suggests that successful change initiatives go beyond compliance and foster a sense of enthusiasm and willingness among individuals. This principle aligns with the idea that individuals are more likely to sustain efforts and contribute positively when they see the change as not just obligatory but also personally beneficial and desirable.

Read More: Semantic Barrier in Communication

Pros and Cons of Kotter’s Change Model

3 pros and 3 cons of Kotter’s 8-step change model are presented below:


  1. Clear and Sequential Process:
    Kotter’s 8-step model provides a systematic and easy-to-follow process for managing change. The sequential nature of the steps offers clarity, making it easier for organizations to navigate through the complexities of transformation.
  2. Focus on Urgency and Motivation:
    One of the model’s strengths is its emphasis on creating a sense of urgency and maintaining motivation throughout the change process. Urgency helps overcome inertia, and motivation ensures sustained efforts, preventing complacency.
  3. Involvement of Various Stakeholders:
    Kotter’s model promotes the involvement of a diverse coalition, ensuring that change efforts are not isolated to a few leaders but include representatives from different levels and functions within the organization. This inclusivity fosters support and collaboration.


  1. Lack of Detail:
    One criticism of Kotter’s model is its limited emphasis on detailed planning. While it highlights the importance of urgency and motivation, it provides less guidance on the specific actions and detailed strategies required for successful implementation.
  2. Sequential and Time-Consuming:
    The model’s sequential nature may lead to a time-consuming change process. In rapidly evolving business environments, the step-by-step approach might not align with the need for agile and quick adaptations, potentially causing delays in implementation.
  3. Top-Down Approach and Limited Employee Involvement:
    Kotter’s model is often criticized for being top-heavy, with a focus on leadership driving change from the top down. This could result in a lack of active involvement and engagement from employees at various levels, leading to resistance and frustration among the workforce.

Read More: 7 Steps of Organizational Development Process

Examples of Kotter’s Eight Step Change Model

Let’s explore how different companies have applied Kotter’s change model and what they have achieved through the following examples:

NetApp’s Market Growth and Efficiency Improvement

NetApp, a cloud data services and management organization, applied Kotter’s 8-step change model to address challenges and achieve strategic goals. Facing tough competition, NetApp used Kotter’s model to:

  • Create a Sense of Urgency: Recognizing the need to grow market share and improve efficiency.
  • Form a Guiding Coalition: Assembling a team to lead the change initiative.
  • Build a Strategic Vision: Outlining milestones and deliverables for the change.
  • Initiate Change Communication: Transparently communicating the need for change.
  • Remove Barriers to Change: Identifying and addressing factors hindering success.
  • Generate Short-Term Wins: Celebrating achievements along the way.
  • Sustain Change as a Continuous Process: Setting SMART goals and ongoing analysis.
  • Incorporate Change into Organizational Culture: Ensuring long-term adoption. The application of Kotter’s model led to a 44% increase in revenue, a 55% increase in sales, and substantial market capitalization growth for NetApp.

General Electric’s Transformation under Jack Welch

During Jack Welch’s tenure as CEO of General Electric (GE), the company underwent a significant transformation, aligning with Kotter’s change model:

  • Create a Sense of Urgency: Welch emphasized the need for constant change in response to market dynamics.
  • Form a Guiding Coalition: Welch built a strong leadership team to drive change.
  • Build a Strategic Vision: The vision included becoming the world’s most competitive enterprise.
  • Initiate Change Communication: Communication emphasizes the urgency and benefits of change.
  • Remove Barriers to Change: Addressing bureaucracy and encouraging innovation.
  • Generate Short-Term Wins: Implementing initiatives for quick, visible successes.
  • Sustain Change as a Continuous Process: Instituting a culture of ongoing improvement and change.
  • Incorporate Change into Organizational Culture: Embedding a culture of innovation and adaptability. Welch’s leadership aligned with Kotter’s principles, contributing to GE’s success during that period.

Read More: 5 Key Values of Organizational Development

Procter & Gamble’s Organizational Restructuring

Procter & Gamble (P&G) applied Kotter’s change model when undergoing a significant organizational restructuring:

  • Create a Sense of Urgency: Recognizing the need to adapt to changing consumer trends.
  • Form a Guiding Coalition: Assembling a team to lead the restructuring efforts.
  • Build a Strategic Vision: Develop a vision for a more agile and consumer-focused organization.
  • Initiate Change Communication: Communicating the reasons and benefits of the restructuring.
  • Remove Barriers to Change: Addressing resistance and streamlining processes.
  • Generate Short-Term Wins: Implementing quick changes to demonstrate progress.
  • Sustain Change as a Continuous Process: Fostering a culture of continuous improvement.
  • Incorporate Change into Organizational Culture: Embedding the changes into P&G’s values and practices. P&G’s application of Kotter’s model aimed to enhance agility and responsiveness in a rapidly evolving consumer goods market.

Kotter’s Change Model Vs. Lewin’s Change Model

Kotter’s Change Model and Lewin’s Change Model represent distinct approaches to organizational change. Kotter’s model, with its eight-step process, emphasizes urgency, leadership, and continuous improvement, aiming for long-term cultural integration. It suits dynamic, fast-paced environments and digital transformations.

In contrast, Lewin’s model comprises three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. It focuses on creating a receptive environment, implementing change, and stabilizing the new state.

Lewin’s model is more linear and suits incremental changes in stable environments. While Kotter’s model addresses ongoing adaptation, Lewin’s is tailored for discrete changes. Choosing between them depends on the organizational context, scale of change, and the nature of the industry—Kotter for continuous evolution and Lewin for incremental, stabilizing changes in more static environments.

Read Next: Organizational Barrier in Communication

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