Types of Managers
Managers can be classified into different groups. Basically, types of managers classified on the basis of levels and nature of work.
The types of managers are:
- Top-level manager
- Middle-level manager
- Lower-level manager
- Generalist manager
- Functional manager
- Staff manager
Managers can be classified as:
On The Basis of Levels of Management
Managers can be classified on the basis of levels of management. Different managers work at different levels on the basis of assigned jobs. On the basis of levels, types of managers are of three:
Top Level Manager
This is the highest level of management hierarchy also known as the brain of the management. This level is the final source of authority. A top-level manager is constituted with a management committee elected directly from shareholders as a member of the board of directors. This level also involves chief executives like the chairman, president, managing director, or general manager.
Top-level managers are responsible for the performance of the entire organization through middle managers. They coordinate among different departments and units of an organization. They perform complex and varied natures of jobs. They work long hours and spend much of their time in meetings and decision-making.
Middle Level Manager
The middle-level manager is the largest group of managers in most organizations. This level of managers consists of departmental heads like personnel managers, marketing managers, finance managers, and other similar positions.
In some big organizations, this level of management has two layers i.e senior and junior level middle manager. Heads of the departments come under senior level whereas branch heads are under the junior level manager.
The top-level manager delegates some part of his authority and responsibility to this level. This level of managers plays the role of mediator between the top and first-line management. The managers of this level have to report about the accomplishment of work to the top level and give instructions to the lower level.
Lower Level Manager
This level of managers also known as the first-line and operating level of managers. It is directly involved in the operation of production, marketing, financing, accounting, etc.
This level consists of supervisors, foremen, sales officers, account officers, superintendents, and other operational heads. They are responsible for the implementation of plans and strategies developed by middle-level managers. They have a direct relationship with the employees who are involved in the operation. This level is directly responsible for the completion of works and planned objectives.
On The Basis of Nature of Work or Area of Managerial Job
Managers are also classified on the basis of the scope of activities they manage. Managers work in various areas regardless of their level in the organization. On the basis of function, types of managers are of three:
Managers who perform different types of jobs in an organization as per the requirement are called generalist managers. They do not specialize in any specific area. They look after the overall activities of the organization apart from any particular area of operation.
They desire to manage complex or difficult departments or units. They lack specialization as they can be transferred to or from one organization to another. They have over workload, as they have to perform diverse nature of jobs. Chief executive officers, presidents, vice presidents, general managers, or deputy general managers are the types of it and fall under this category.
Managers who specialize in specific areas are functional managers. Their authorities, duties, and responsibilities are already described in the job description. Managers performing functions relating to production, sales, finance, public relation, research, and development, accounting, etc. are the managers of this category.
In practice, all departments head of a business firm is functional managers. In the normal course of operation, they are accountable for the performance of their own department or unit.
They are professionals and experts in a specific area of business. They are given no specific formal position at the management level. However, they play the role of advisors between generalist and functional managers. They provide guidance and suggestion to both the above managers on the basis of requirements. Legal advisors, external auditors, management consultants are the types or examples of such managers.