Theory X and Theory Y
It is Douglas McGregor, who proposed a motivation theory called “theory X and theory Y”. He has viewed human beings’ nature in two ways first negatively labeled X theory and positively labeled Y theory.
According to him, theory Y is a set of optimistic assumptions about human nature and theory X is a set of pessimistic assumptions about the workers.
He suggested in every organization, there are two types of employees. One Y theory people, who like inherently to do work and X theory people who inherently dislike doing works. Both people are important to the organization, so, a manager directly can not eliminate them. There may be various reasons that they do not devote their effort towards the organization, it may be their personal reasons as well as organizational reasons.
McGregor argued to motivate theory X and theory Y employees, at first manager has to understand their behaviors, need, perceptions, their thinking capability and acts the way they want so that their efforts contributed towards the achievement of organizational goals.
He provided assumptions (sometimes called features) in both theory X and theory Y, to easily recognize who falls in which categories X and Y.
Assumptions of X Theory
Theory X is based on traditional assumptions about human behavior. Here, people do not easily accept the change. They want to work in a way they feel comfortable. Thus, the manager has to launch an authoritarian style of management and take close supervision to control the works of employees. If still, they do not accept the new things, a manager can apply aggressive ways to manage them.
The assumptions of theory X are:
- Employees inherently do not want to work, they are lazy, consider work as a burden, and if possible they avoid it.
- They must be corrected, controlled, or threatened with punishment in order to achieve desired goals.
- They resist change as they have a traditional concept of doing works and want to work the way familiar to them.
- They are less ambitious and concerned with future activities.
- They are self-centered and indifferent to organizational goals and objectives.
- They avoid works and asks for various incentive plans to show their ambition in front of the manager.
- A manager has to apply motivational tools to modify their behavior towards the organizational goals, if not, apply a demotion strategy.
Assumptions of Y Theory
Theory Y is an optimistic view of workers. It believes in positive and intrinsic motivation. Theory Y represents participative management. The subordinates, managers, and organization are seen as mutually supportive. Theory Y employees are self-motivated towards work and a manager does not have to make that much effort to get their maximum devotion.
The assumptions of Theory Y are:
- Employees inherently like to do works, they believe work is a natural activity like play and rest.
- They are self-directed and committed to the organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so.
- They are ready to accept change and seek responsibilities.
- They are self-controlled and self-motivated as such a manager does not need to apply punishment to modify their behavior.
- They are active, ambitious, creative, and imaginative, and think about the future goals of both themselves and the organization.
- They believe work is a means of success and later it leads to great achievement.
Thus, the employees who fall in the X theory are hard to manage and motivate and the manager needs to contribute more efforts. And, as Y theory employees are self-motivated in fewer efforts they are motivated. As compared to Y theory, X theory employees are difficult to manage and vice versa.
In McGregor’s final thought, the managers get the work done from others. It is necessary for them to understand the behavior of each worker as well as the group. Managers have to create good working conditions, which is possible only by knowing the behavioral patterns.