Theories of Social Change
There are many theories on social change developed by sociologists in order to explain the nature, direction, cause, and effects of social change. These various theories are;
- Structural Functionalist approach/theory
- Conflict theory
- Cyclic theory
- Linear theory
- Modernization theory
Let’s talk about these social change theories one by one,
1. Structural-Functionalist Approach to Social Change
Functionalists emphasize what maintains society, not what changes it. The functionalist theory focuses on social order, consensus, and stability of the social system. They are of the opinion that change disrupts the orderly functioning of the system.
Later, the American sociologist Talottll Parsons (1966), presented an “equilibrium model of social change which stated that society is always in a natural state of equilibrium. Gradual change is both necessary and desirable and arises from population growth, industrialization, technological advances, and interaction with other societies that bring new ways of thinking and acting.
However, any sudden social change disrupts this equilibrium. To prevent this from happening, if one part of society sees too sudden a change, then other parts of society must make appropriate adjustments in order to bring the social system back to equilibrium and its smooth functioning.
Criticisms of functionalist theory to social change: The functionalist perspective to social change has been criticized on a few grounds as follows;
- Critics argue to minimize the that functionalists’ effects of change.
- The functionalist theory also assumes that sudden social change is highly undesirable, when such change may in fact be needed to correct inequality and other deficiencies in the status quo.
- Critics argue that functionalists ignore the use of force by society’s power to maintain an illusion of stability and integration.
2. Conflict Theory
The conflict theory is from one of the theories of social change, which has its root in the ‘dialectical materialism’ developed by Karl Marx, stands against structural functionalism. Conflict theory views social change as a normal and essential (beneficial) phenomenon.
The conflict theorists believed that it is the conflict between individuals, classes, groups, institutions, etc. that bring change in the society. They mention that every society has conflicting groups wherein there is an exploitation of one group by another. For a time being, the exploited class does not realize being exploited but in course of time, they realize their position of being exploited and in turn, they unite through class consciousness and revolt against the exploiters (bourgeoise, capitalist, owners of means of production). Finally, a classless society is established. Again, this new arrangement gives rise to conflicting groups/classes that again come into conflict, and this process is continuous.
Hence, conflict theorists consider class conflict as the prime mover (driver or vehicle) of social change.
Criticism of Conflict Approach to Social Change: The conflict theory to social change has been criticized on a few grounds as follows;
- Critics of conflict theory say that it exaggerates the extent of social inequality and overemphasizes conflict rooted in economic inequality while neglecting conflict rooted in race, ethnicity, gender, religion, etc.
- Nowhere in the world, is seen the capitalist societies turned into classless communist/ socialist societies as predicted by Marists (conflict theorists).
- Critics blame that conflict theorists do not realize that social upheaval does not inevitably lead to positive or expected outcomes.
3. Cyclic Theory
This theory states that society undergoes a change in a circular manner. Social change takes a cyclic form, from worse to better, back again from better to worse. Social change is not always for the better. Societies may grow, advance, and reach the peak stage of development, and then they may stagnate and finally collapse, with the potential for rising again.
4. Linear Theory (or Evolutionary)
This theory states that change takes place in a linear manner. The direction of social change is from worse to better, simple to complex, and backward to modern. In other words, according to linear theory, social change is evolutionary which means that it is always moving towards better results until perfection is achieved.
5. Modernization Theory
This theory of social change can be understood as an extension of linear, evolutionary theory. It states that the change that is being experienced by most Third World societies is by imitating or copying the values, experiences, and models already used by advanced, industrialized societies i.e. Western societies. Social change is by adopting, assimilating, and internalizing those aspects of the industrialized societies which copied would bring about an improved social, economic, and political development to the third world society.
Difference between the Functionalist and Conflict Theories of Social Change
Some of the major differences between these two theories regarding views on social change are;
- The functional theory assumes the status quo is generally good and sudden social change is undesirable. Whereas, Conflict theory assumes the status quo is generally bad and sudden social change in the form of protest or revolution as both desirable and necessary to reduce or eliminate social inequality and other social ills.
- The functional theory views industrialization as a positive development that helped make modern society possible. Whereas, Conflict theory views industrialization as negative development that exploited workers and thus increased social inequality.
Functionalists recognize that social change is unplanned. Whereas, Conflict theorists recognize that social change is planned (intended) and often arises from efforts by social movements aimed at bringing about fundamental changes in the social, economic, and political systems.