Roles of a Manager in an Organization
Management roles refer to the specific type of managerial behavior. The roles of a manager are the duties and tasks to do. All managers working at different levels of the organization need to perform various roles according to their job responsibilities and authority.
Henry Mintzberg, a prominent researcher, during the 1970s, criticized the traditional functional approach of management as unrealistic. He had done a careful study of five chief executives at work for two weeks. He determined that the managers serve 10 different roles but all are closely related to each other.
10 Roles of Manager Suggested by Henry Mintzberg are:
- Disturbance Handler
- Resource Allocator
Mintzberg and his followers have recommended that an effective way of inquiring what managers do is to concentrate on the key roles they perform.
These 10 roles of managers have been grouped into three categories/types: interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. It can be shown in the following picture,
Describing above managerial roles individually:
#1 Interpersonal Roles
Interpersonal role of a manager concern with contracts and dealing with other people. The manager tries to maintain an interpersonal relationship with employees and outsiders on behalf of an organization. Interpersonal roles of a manager include,
Managers play this role when they have to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. The manager performs his duty as a head or part of the organization. His duties may include greeting visitors, distributing gifts, attending ceremonial functions, etc.
A manager has to perform as a leader with all the qualities the leader has. The leadership role needs to maintain discipline and efficiency in the organization. Leadership role involves directing, motivating, leading & controlling, counseling, training, etc. to carry out operating activities as per the organizational plans.
Managers play this role to build a network between their organization and outside institutions or people. In other words, it is the linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization/department.
May this role helps the manager to maintain social and business relationships with outsiders.
#2 Informational Roles
Information is the lifeblood of the organization and proper communication of day-to-day activities is necessary for every organization. Sometimes or in some situations managers have to play an informational role and this role establishes the managers as the central point for receiving and dispatching non-routine information. These roles consist of receiving, collecting, and dispatching information. The informational roles include the three roles of the manager.
The monitor role of a manager involves receiving information about the internal performance and external performance of the organization. In other words, it is analyzing the information from both the internal and external environment looking for the relevant changes. For this formal and informal contacts are useful for collecting information.
After analyzing the important information manager needs to transmit or disseminate the relevant information to the employees in the organization. It may relate to the internal operation and external operation.
A manager has to perform as a spokesperson while he is representing the organization to the outsiders. Performing such a role, the manager acts as an agent of the organization. The manager explains the viewpoint of the organization on a particular matter also when queries arise he has to answer the people.
#3 Decisional Roles
Roles associated with methods, managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources. The decisional role concerns choosing the best solution to a problem from among many alternatives. The collecting of information and maintaining the relationship with others serve as a basis for decision-making. The four important decisional roles are:
The entrepreneur role of a manager involves initiating change or acting as a change agent and taking the risk for better performance. It may include innovation, generation of new ideas. As an entrepreneur, a manager decides which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in. For example, an effective marketing manager continually seeks new product ideas.
This role of a manager involves taking corrective action when the organization faces unexpected disturbances like a strike, feud between subordinates, etc. In other words, it relates to managing an unexpected event or crisis. In this serious situation, the manager has to handle it tactfully.
It relates to assigning resources (money, people, time, and equipment) between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers. For this, a manager has to allocate scarce resources in many departments and units where they are most needed. Therefore, a manager has to decide exactly who should get what.
As a communicator, a manager does agreements with other managers, other departments, unions, customers, or shareholders, Similarly, a manager must bargain with other units and individuals to obtain advantages for his unit. The negotiations may concern work, performance, objectives, resources, or anything else influencing the manager units.
These are the ten managerial roles that are essential for better management of an organization from the perspective of the manager.