Definition of Psychology, Science, Natures and Characteristics

Definition of Psychology and science

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Definition of psychology & science. First psychology is the science of behavior and mental process. Where science is the detailed study of any particular events.

Definition of science:doing science study

Science is concerned with knowledge. It refers to the body of knowledge systematically arranged knowledge is its purpose and system refers to the method that has to be followed for the acquisition of knowledge exploring the different horizons of knowledge is not only a challenge but also a matter of great intellectual delight to a scientist. The more a scientist acquire it, the more it remains to be acquired not only a scientist is more interested in accruing knowledge but also he/she is better equipped to do so.

Definition of Psychology:psychological mind

The word psychology was derived from the two Greek words ‘Psyche’ and ‘Logos’. Psyche meaning ‘soul’ & ‘Logos’ meaning ‘discourage, study or knowledge’. Hence, the earliest meaning of psychology was the study of the soul or spirit.

In general term, psychology is the study of human and humans behavior as well as organisms. It studies human behavior as occurred in their daily activity.

Defining psychology is not a simple matter because of its wide scope, broad concern & the philosophical differences among its practitioners. Psyche & science combine to form the word psychology. Today, psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.

We also said psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes of human beings. Where, scientific study is the detailed, fact, systematic process of acquiring knowledge from any events & issues to the scientists.

 

Many psychologists have defined psychology in their own ways; some of them are as follows,

According to ‘Crow & Crow‘ – “Psychology is the study of human behavior & human relationships.”

According to Skinner – “Psychology is the study of human behavior & experience.”

Also, according to Walter Bowers Pillsbury – “Psychology is the science of human behavior.”

Similarly, according to Wood Worth – “Psychology is the scientific study of the activity of the individual in relation to his environment.”

In conclusion, psychology is the science of human & animal’s behavior. It included the application of behavior, a science of human problems. Psychology is the detailed analysis of human mind & behavior in different situations of how he or she acts per the situation.

 

Nature/ features/ characteristics of psychology

  • Psychology is the study of human behavior & mental process.
  • Psychology is a science.
  • It is a positive (factual) science.
  • Also, it studies the experience & behavior of organisms.
  • Similarly, it studies behavior/ activities in relation to the environment.
  • It believes in cause & effect relationship.
  • It makes a prediction about human behavior.
  • Also, it helps on business management.

Misconceptions of psychology

  • Psychology majors can read your mind.
  • There is nothing that you can do with a psychology degree unless you have a master.
  • Psychology is an easy major.
  • Also, Psychology is only about helping people.
  • Similarly, Psychology is not a real science.

Components of psychology

1. Study of experience

Psychologists study a variety of human experiences which are mainly personal or private in nature. They may range from experiences of dream, conscious experiences at different stages of life and experiences when the consciousness is altered through meditation or use of psychedelic drugs. The study of such experiences helps the psychologist to understand the personal world of the individual.

2. Study of mental process

Psychology as the study of mental processes tries to investigate the activities happening in the brain which is primarily non-physiological in nature. These mental processes include perception, learning, remembering and thinking. These are internal mental activities which are not directly observed but inferred from the behavioral activities of the person. For example, we can say that somebody is thinking if he or she displays certain activities related to finding a solution to a mathematical problem assigned to him or her.

3. Study of behaviorBehaving

In the study of both internal & external behavior of human beings as well as other living creatures. Such as facial expression, movement, activities, etc.

Where,

  • Overt behavior – behavior that can be observed directly.
  • Covert behavior –internal behavior that cannot be observed directly. Such as Sensation, Thought, Emotions, Feelings, and Motives that others cannot directly observe.

Also, behavior includes,

  • Motor or Conative (Effect of the agent) activities (Walking, Swimming, Dancing etc.)
  • Cognitive activities (Thinking, Reasoning, imagining etc.)
  • Affective Activities (Feeling sad, Happy, Angry etc.)

 

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