What is Organizing?
Organizing is the process of combining together all the organizational resources and establishing productive relations among them to achieve predetermined objectives effectively and efficiently. It organizes resources include money, materials, machines, and manpower.
Organizing is the second function of management. It is the process of assigning activities among the individuals and defining their authority and responsibility. It also defines the formal relationships among individuals so as to perform the work as one or a single body for the achievement of common objectives.
The organizing function of management involves a series of activities that a manager has to do:
- Identification of specific activities.
- Grouping of activities into jobs.
- Assignment of jobs to formal groups.
- Establishing a network of authority and responsibility relationship.
- Providing a framework for measurement, evaluation, and control.
According to, Theo Haiman – Organizing is the process of defining and grouping the activities of the enterprise and establishing the authority relationship among them.
Stoner and Freeman – Organizing is the process of arranging and allocating work, authority, and resources among an organization’s members so that they can achieve organization’s goals.
Thus, organizing is the process of identifying required activities, grouping them into jobs, assigning jobs to various position holders, and creating a network of relationships among them so that organizational goals and objectives can be achieved. And, for this, it is the responsibility of the manager to do the best.
Characteristics of Organizing
The common nature or features or characteristics of organizing are:
Identification of Activities
Every enterprise establishes for the achievement of definite objectives. To achieve it, it is essential to perform many activities. One of the important components of organizing is to identify various types of activities need to perform for the achievement of defined objectives.
When the number of objectives planned for the enterprise is more, the activities of the enterprise will be more. Basically, the activities of the enterprise depend upon its nature and size.
Grouping of Activities
All the identified activities of the organization must be classified on the basis of common nature and should be put at one group or subgroup. This part of organizing involves creating departments and sections for specific works such as production, marketing, finance, human resource, etc.
Again, a department may be subdivided into sections and individual job units by using the concept of division of labor and specialization. This is helpful to maintain coordination and exercise control over activities.
Accumulation of Resources
Resources are essential for the smooth functioning of an enterprise. These resources involve manpower, materials, machines, money, and technology. The availability of needed resources facilitates for uniform and smooth performance of the enterprise which is supportive to produce quality products and provide quality service in time.
Defining Hierarchy of Positions
It involves a formal structure in which the hierarchy of authority of each member is clearly defined. The hierarchy of authority is formally formed on the basis of a degree of responsibility and accountability. It clarifies the role of every individual from top-level to subordinate levels.
A higher-level job needs more skills, experience, and responsibility. A chain of command is implemented to see the progress of the work of respective subordinates.
Assignment of Jobs
The total works of an enterprise are divided into units on the basis of their common nature. Each work is assigned to different individuals on the basis of their skills, ability, and experience.
The assignment of the right job to the right persons develops the practice of specialization and efficiency among them. This minimizes wastage of materials, breakdown of machines, and equipment and supervision costs.
Establishing Authority and Responsibility Relationship
For the systematic function of managerial function, it is essential to establish the authority and responsibility relationship of all the employees from top-level to subordinate levels. Job responsibility should be given to the employees on the basis of their skill and efficiency.
Similarly, on the basis of their level of responsibility proper authority should be given. The parity between authority and responsibility encourages employees to do the assigned jobs according to their best efficiency.
Organizing also involves evaluation of actual performance achieved within a stipulated time. After some time of implementation of the plan, it is essential to evaluate actual work completed.
It facilitates comparing actual work completed with planned estimation and to take corrective measures if actual work completed is not in accordance with planned work. It is helpful to meet determined objectives within the defined time.