Organizational Development Techniques
Organizational development (OD) is the process of improving organizational efficiency through planned change. Its main motive is to improve the overall operating efficiency of the organization. For organizational development, it is essential to perform some activities or use techniques at the individual level, group level, and organizational system levels.
10 important organizational development techniques/activities are:
- Counseling and coaching
- Sensitivity training
- Survey feedback
- Formation of team
- Process consultation
- Inter-group development
- Orga izational restrucurung
- Technological changes
- Goal setting
- Quality of work-life programs
These OD techniques also classified as:
#1 Individual Level Techniques/Activities
The main motive of individual activities is to improve the skills, ability, and efficiency of individuals and encourage them for the best of work. The individual-level techniques of organizational development include counseling and coaching, sensitivity training, and survey feedback.
Counseling and Coaching
Counseling is concerned with making interaction with individuals to know about their problems, difficulties, potentiality, prosperity, work and family life, etc. Such interaction facilitates understanding employees and managers, can provide proper guidance. Similarly, coaching is concerned with guidance, instruction, information, facilitates to employees for their better performance.
Sensitivity training involves a change in the behavior of group members through unstructured group interaction. In such training, interpersonal problems of the workgroup are discussed and resolved. In the problem-solving process, all the group members have participated. They make interacting with group members and also with managers in taking decisions.
This activity involves the distribution of questionnaires to the members to know about their perceptions, beliefs, and attitude toward organizational development. The area of the survey can be a workgroup, department, or whole organization. It facilitates finding out the discrepancy in the perception and behavior of members.
#2 Group Level Activities/Techniques
The main motive of group-level activity is to improve group-level performance. The group-level techniques of organizational development are:
Formation of Team
Formation of teams having skilled members and assignment of a job to them is an important part of the group-level activity of organizational development. The team formation process involves some activities such as goal setting, performance evaluation, goal clarity, and process analysis. It helps for mutual interaction among group members in the process of doing work. It increases mutual trust, openness, and cooperation among team members.
This activity is concerned with the task process to be completed by the group members to achieve objectives. It involves consultation with outside expertise about procedures for the accomplishment of assigned jobs. The consultant identifies and suggests major processes to improve group performance. The workgroup needs to perform activities in accordance with the suggestions of the consultant.
An important part of the group activity is to implement techniques for intergroup efficiency development. All group members need to participate in a problem-solving activity. It facilitates to change in the attitudes, believes, and perceptions that group members have of each other.
#3 Organizational Level Activities/Techniques
Organizational-level activities emphasize a system of the whole organization. In organizational development, management needs to change the required systems of the organization to improve performance. The organizational level techniques of organizational development are:
It is concerned with a radical change in the existing organizational structure to adapt to organizational development. It involves the development of a new management structure, authority relationship among managers, division of work, coordination system, communication channels, and supervision.
Technological development is an ever-changing process. It is concerned with the use of machines and methods in the production process. It is concerned with modification in working processes such as from manual to automation, robotics, and computerization. Information technology should be widely used for the production and distribution of goods and services.
Management by objectives technique can be used for goal setting. In MBO, managers and subordinates come together and mutually set organizational goals, prepare plans and implement plans in practice. It emphasizes integrating both organizational and individual objectives of employees.
Quality of Work Life Programs
The main objectives of such programs are to create a favorable working environment to satisfy employees. Some steps of quality work life are safe and healthy work environment, development of human potential and capabilities, equitable rewards, etc.