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Roles are the responsibilities or tasks to perform. All managers working at the different level of the organization need to perform various roles according to their job responsibilities and authority. Thus, managerial roles refer to the specific types of behavior or function performed by the manager. Also, managerial roles are the consequences of a manager’s authority and status.
Henry Mintzberg, a prominent researcher, and his follower has grouped the roles of manager into three groups.
Roles of Managers
The types or groups of manager roles are:
- Interpersonal Roles
- Informational Roles
- Decisional Roles
1. Interpersonal Roles
Roles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a whole. In other words, a manager gives responsibilities to their subordinates manually or as a leader. This roles concern with maintaining formal and informal relationships with employees and public at large. Interpersonal roles of manager include.
Figurehead – Managers play this role when they perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. These include greeting visitors, distributing gifts, attending ceremonial functions, etc.
Leader – A manager has to perform this role at official functions as a leader. For the manager, this role is essential to maintain discipline and efficiency among the staff of the organization. This leadership role involves directing, motivating, leading & controlling, counseling, training, etc. to carry out operating activities as per the organizational plans.
Liaison – Managers play this role when they work as a connecting link between their organization and outside institutions or people. In other words, it is the linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization/department. May this role helps to maintain social and business relationships with outsiders.
2. Informational Roles
Roles associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information in the process of managing the organization. Sometime or some situation managers have to play an informational role and this role establishes the managers as the central point for receiving and dispatching non-routine information. These roles consist of receiving, collecting, and dispatching information. The informational roles include the three roles of the manager.
Monitor – The monitor roles involves receiving information about internal performance and external performance of the organization. In other words, it analyzing information from both the internal and external environment. For this formal and informal contacts are useful for collecting information.
Disseminator – This role involves the transmitting of information to influence the attitudes and behavior of employees. It may relate to the internal operation and external operation.
Spokesperson – As a spokesperson, a manager formally relays information to people outside the organization. Performing such a role, the manager acts as an agent of the organization. Also, using the information a manager positively influence the way of people in and out of the organization respond to it.
3. Decisional Roles
Roles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources. Decisional role concerns with choosing the best solution of a problem from among many alternatives. The collecting of information and maintaining the relationship with others serve as a basis for decision-making. The four important roles are:
Entrepreneur – The entrepreneur role of a manager involves initiating change or acting as a change agent and taking the risk for better performance. As an entrepreneur, a manager decides which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in. For e.g. an effective marketing manager continually seeks new product ideas.
Disturbance handler – This role of a manager involves taking corrective action when the organization faces unexpected disturbance like the strike, feud between subordinates, etc. In other words, it relates to managing an unexpected event or crisis.
Resource allocator – It relates to the assigning resources (money, people, time and equipment) between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers. For this, a manager has to allocate the scarce resources in many departments and units where they are most needed. Therefore, a manager has to decide exactly who should get what.
Negotiator – As a communicator, a manager does agreements between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders. Similarly, a manager must bargain with other units and individuals to obtain advantages for his unit. The negotiations may concern with work, performance, objectives, resources or anything else influencing the units.
Hence, these are the ten managerial roles which are essential for better management to an organization with the perspective of the manager.
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