Styles of Leadership
Leadership styles refer to the leader’s behaviors towards subordinates while leading them for the achievement of goals. Leadership style is the result of the leader’s objectives, personality, experience, and value system.
In short, the behavior shown by a leader during the supervision of his subordinates is known as leadership styles. It is generally agreed that there are probably as many different leadership styles as there are different leaders.
While leading the follower every leader shows different behaviors. When we see the different leaders we start to talk about their styles of behaving towards their followers. We judge them as rude, familiar, positive, negative, funny, etc. It is difficult to identify the exact style of leaders. Hence, here, we look at different leadership styles to understand the styles of leaders.
The 4 Most Popular Leadership Styles
- Autocratic Leadership Style
- Democratic Leadership Style (Participative)
- Laissez-Fair Leadership (Free Rein Leadership)
- Paternalistic Style
Let’s get explained,
#1 Autocratic Leadership Style
Autocratic leadership is also known as authoritarian and dictatorial and boss centered leadership. In this leadership, a leader has sole authority to make decisions. A leader believed in centralized power and expects all decisions from him without consulting subordinates. He always expects subordinates to accept his decisions without any comment. In short, he behaves like a dictator.
Here, as a leader, the manager centralizes total power with him and enjoys full authority, and bears the responsibility for the organization. He determines plans and policies independently and implements them according to his knowledge and logic. He never takes any guidance and suggestions from his subordinates. Thus, it is related to the centralization of authority.
In autocratic leadership, the leader solves every problem of the organization himself. He also defines what to do, how to do the work to subordinates. He determines rewards to obedient and efficient subordinates and holds out the threat of punishment to inefficient or indisciplined subordinates.
In the authoritarian leadership style, there is one-way communication. The information of guidance and instructions only flows from top-level to operational levels.
Autocratic leadership can be sub-divided into two categories strict autocratic leadership and benevolent autocratic leadership.
In strict autocratic leadership, a leader always uses negative motivation. He motivates the subordinates by threatening them with a penalty, punishment, demotion, etc. A leader is all in all in each and every activity of the organization. In benevolent autocratic leadership, a leader uses positive emotion. He encourages the subordinates by giving incentives like promotion, more remuneration, etc. In some situations, he also takes guidance and suggestions from subordinates.
This style has both positive and negative sides. Advantages of autocratic leadership:
- Prompt decisions can be made
- Maximizes productivity
- It is adaptable to environmental change
- Reduces the workload of subordinates
Disadvantages of autocratic leadership:
- High frustration
- Low morale
- High conflicts
- Employees try to avoid responsibility
- Lack of initiation
This leadership style is losing its popularity because of rising living standards, entry of new generations into organizations, and social awareness.
Where to use autocratic leadership style?
Autocracy Leadership can be used, where
- The subordinates are inexperienced, lack proper training and knowledge, unable to understands organizational goals.
- The company approves fear and punishment as accepted disciplinary techniques.
- The leader is highly competent in decision making.
- The leader wants to be active and dominant in decision making.
#2 Democratic Leadership Style
This is a liberal type of leadership. It is also known as participative leadership, employee-centered leadership. In this leadership style, a leader believes in the decentralization of power and invites subordinates into the decision making process. This leadership style is suitable and practicable when subordinates are trained, experienced, and skilled.
In democratic leadership, the upper-level management is responsible for the preparation of plans and policies whereas subordinates are responsible for their implementation. Here, upper-level management takes suggestions, guidance, and information from subordinates for the preparation of plans and policies.
In the democratic leadership style, there is a system of two-way communication. The information of instructions and guidance flows from the top-level to the subordinates whereas the information of achievement, problems, and suggestions flows from the subordinates level to the upper level.
Here, a leader always uses positive motivation and encourages subordinates by providing rewards and incentives. To some extent, subordinates are independent in doing their work. The leader only provides guidance and suggestions at the time of requirement. The feeling of teamwork is developed among all the employees.
The positive sides of this participative leadership style are, it produces more job satisfaction and morale of employees. Participation enables subordinates to satisfy their social and ego needs. The leader encourages subordinates and uses feedback to coach employees.
The one most negative side of this leadership style is that it increases the decision-making time that can be a reason for the difficulty in adapting to environmental change.
Where to use Democratic Leadership Style?
Democratic leadership can be used, where
- Subordinates are highly competent, experienced, and motivated.
- The leaders prefer participation in decision making.
- The organization has made its objectives transparent to the employees.
- Reward and involvement are used as the primary means of motivation and control.
Difference Between Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Styles
Autocratic leadership Vs. Democratic leadership, some differences between these leadership styles are as follows:
|Autocratic Leadership||Democratic Leadership|
|Known as authoritarian leadership where power|
|Known as participative leadership where the|
power is decentralized.
|Here, decision making is concerned on the|
|Here, the leader invites subordinates to participate|
in the decision-making process.
|There is a one-way communication from the top|
level to subordinate levels.
|There is two-way communication from top-level|
to subordinate levels and vice versa.
|This style gives importance to negative motivation.||This style gives importance to positive|
|Suitable where subordinates are uneducated|
|Suitable where subordinates are trained,|
experienced, and intelligent.
|A single leader takes the decision, so there is|
possibility of prompt decisions.
|A leader takes decisions by consulting|
subordinates, so there is the probability of slow
|Here, a leader behaves like a dictator to|
subordinates, so there is no possibility of
creativity and potentiality of employees in
|Here, leader prefers participative management|
there is more possibility of using creativity and
the potentiality of employees in productivity.
#3 Laissez Faire Leadership or Free Rein Leadership
It is a leadership style where followers are granted power of decision making. Here, the leader does not lead but leaves the group entirely to itself.
Under a laissez-faire leadership style, leaders avoid powers and responsibility. They grant authority and responsibility to groups. The role of the leader is to provide advice and direction as requested by the subordinates. Group members perform everything themselves. Leaders behave primarily as a group and play the role of a member-only.
In this leadership style, there is horizontal communication. The concept of management by exception promotes this style, where subordinates themselves plan, control, evaluate, and decide, and the manager interferes exceptionally. This style is suitable for highly trained and professional staff.
Characteristics of laissez-faire leadership style are: (Source: Robert Kreitner)
- Leader grants authority and responsibility to groups.
- Group members are told to work things out themselves and do the best they can.
- Primarily horizontal communication among peers.
- Permits self-starters to do things as they want without leader interference.
- Groups may drift aimlessly in the absence of direction from the leader.
Where to use free rein leadership style?
Free Rein Leadership Style can be used, where
- The organizational goals have been communicated well and are acceptable to all subordinates.
- The leader is interested in delegating decision-making authority fully.
- The subordinates themselves are well trained and highly knowledgeable concerning their tasks and are ready to assume responsibility.
#4 Paternalistic Leadership Style
Paternalistic style is a fatherly style of leadership, it is just like a mature father in a family. Under this leadership style, the leader assumes a paternal or fatherly role.
Paternalistic style is a part of the laissez-faire leadership style.
The leader works to guide, protect, and keep followers who work together as members of a happy family. He makes provisions for good working conditions and other necessary services. It is hoped that under such leadership, workers will work hard out of gratitude.
After discussing all the above leadership styles, we may come up with a question, which leadership style is best and why? Which leadership style is superior and why?
It can be clearly concluded from the above discussion that no leadership style is superior in itself, it depends. Most people prefer to work under a democratic leadership style. However, it does not mean democratic or participative leadership is always best. The choice depends on forces in the managers, forces in the subordinates, and forces in the situation.
In short-run, the autocratic style may produce good results but democratic leadership produces good results in the long-term. Sometimes, leaders prefer to choose the free rein style either because of lack of confidence or because the situation is much favorable.
Our parents used to be autocratic when we were school student, they tend to be participative when we are mature, and laissez-faire as they become old and we are self-motivated and able.