Spreadsheet – Ms-Excel Definition and Features and Cell Referencing

Spreadsheet & Cell Referencing



A spreadsheet is a large sheet of papers with multiple rows and columns. It is a type of computerized ledger having the number of rows and columns. Ms-excel is a spreadsheet software or tool for the spreadsheet.

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The term spreadsheet refers to a large sheet of papers with multiple rows and columns for record keeping and calculation. In the oldest time, the keeping records with calculation are the big problem that was solved by spreadsheet calculation. The replacement of manual sheet with an electronic sheet is done by spreadsheet package. A spreadsheet is large electronic sheets where packages are created and modified. The examples of spreadsheet package are Ms-Excel, Quarto Pro, and Lotus 1-2-3, etc.

Ms-excel is a full-featured spreadsheet program that is used by millions of people nowadays. Ms-Excel developed by Microsoft Company. Also,  Ms-Excel has a large number of features such as mathematical and logical calculations. It has also some features of word processing package too. It is used for the official task for simple mathematical and logical calculation.

Features of Ms-Excel

  • Used for creating worksheets and workbooks.
  • Allows for opening and closing workbooks.
  • Also, Used for formatting number and text by adjusting column, text placement, and numerical notations.
  • Used for labeling, naming and protecting cell documents.
  • Used for preparing charts, presenting numerical information in graphical form.
  • Prints the documents such as worksheets and graph, etc.
  • Have features of checking conditional formatting, validation and data entry rules.
  • Provides tables with different formats.


Terms used in Ms-excel

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The primary document that we use in Ms-excel to store a work with data is called worksheet. A worksheet is always stored in a workbook.


A workbook is a file in which we work and store our data because each workbook can contain many sheets. We can organize various kinds of related information in a single file. A workbook is the collection of worksheets. By default, there are three worksheets in a workbook.


A cell is the small rectangular box in a worksheet. It is an intersection of rows and columns. The highlighting cell is an active cell.


Rows are the horizontal lines of the cell in a worksheet. There are 65536 rows in one worksheet.


Columns are the vertical lines of the cell in a worksheet. There are 256 columns in one worksheet denoted by A to IV.

Cell address

Each and every cell has its own address. Cell address denoted by column name and row number e.g. C3, AI, B4, etc.


Cell referencing or references

A formula entered in the cell represents some relationship between the cells is cell referencing. There are three types of cell referencing:

Relative cell references

If the formula copied to the one cell address to another cell’s formula changed according to the cell address is relative cell references. For e.g. C1 has the formula = A1 + B1 and the formula copied to C2 it changed as C2 = A2 + B2.

Absolute cell references

If the formula copied to the one cell address to another cells formula cannot change according to the cell address is absolute cell references. To make constant there is use symbol “$”. For e.g. if the cell C1 has formula = $A$1 + $B$1 then if the formula copied to cell C2, it becomes = $A$1 + $B$1 or same.

Mixed cell references

Combination of both relative cell references and absolute cell references is mixed cell references. For e.g. cell C1 has formula = A$1 + B$1 i.e. column name A and B are relative and rows number are absolute referencing.



Question: How Ms-excel help in decision analysis? Or Why Ms-excel is considered as a decision analysis tool? Or why Ms-excel used for data analysis and decision making?


  • Computers are widely used for data analysis. Ms-excel is specially designed for the data analysis and presentation. Data are entered on rows and columns and tabulated them for billing, result analysis, tax analysis, and sales analysis, etc.
  • Used for accounting application for the small organization. We can prepare bills, ledgers, payable bills, inventory, etc. using Excel.
  • We can enter data from survey, population census, voter list collection, etc.
  • Perform data sorting, filtering, etc. for data analysis.
  • We can use a pivot table for data analysis.
  • It is more applicable to sales collection and analysis.
  • We can analyze the data region wise, sales area wise etc.

For offline read download PDF file Spreadsheet

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