Deming’s 14 Points
It is W. Edwards Deming who developed quality management techniques. Deming’s suggested 14 points for total quality management. Deming’s 14 points are also known as Deming’s 14 principles or philosophy for quality management.
The 14 points are:
- Create constancy of purpose
- Adopt the new philosophy
- Cease dependence on mass inspection
- End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone
- Seek continuous improvement
- Institute modern methods of training on the job
- Institute leadership
- Drive out fear
- Break down barriers between staff areas
- Eliminates slogans and targets
- Eliminate numerical quotas
- Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
- Institute a vigorous program of education and training
- Take action to accomplish the transformation
Here, we discuss these Deming’s 14 points
#1 Create Constancy of Purpose
This is the first point from Deming’s 14 points, according to this. The management must make all efforts for constant improvement in products and services to remain competitive in the market. Quality and not profit should be the organization’s purpose. According to Deming, profit is automatically had when the organization can maintain quality. Therefore, the management must maintain a constant effort to improve and shift its focus from short-term interests to long-term ones.
#2 Adopt The New Philosophy
According to Deming’s 14 points, modern methods and advanced technology should be applied to improve product and service quality. All organizational members should support the new culture and dedicate themselves to improving quality.
#3 Cease Dependence on Mass Inspection
Quality can be maintained by improving the process and not by inspecting it. Inspection for the faulty product is unnecessary if the quality is maintained from the very beginning.
#4 End The Practice of Awarding Business on Price Tag Alone
Purchasing department normally gives orders to the lowest-priced vendors. But they do not ensure quality materials and suppliers. It is essential to maintain long term, loyal, and trust relationship with a single supplier who deals with high quality. According to Deming, price is not significant until it is related to quality.
#5 Seek Continuous Improvement
Management must continuously improve the production process for better productivity and lower costs. In other words, it is the responsibility of the management to innovate alternatives to reduce waste and to improve quality. According to Deming’s 14 points, corporate reengineering and process improvement is not a one-time effort.
#6 Institute Modern Methods of Training On-The-Job
Generally, junior workers learn their job from seniors who were never trained formally. It may not be developed the new scientific knowledge and skills among them. On the other hand, on-the-job training helps them to increase the required knowledge and skills to complete a given job.
#7 Institute Leadership
The responsibility of managers and supervisors is to help workers to reach their full potential. They need to adopt and institute leadership to heps workers to do a better job. Management must ensure that immediate action is taken on reports of inherent defects, poor tools, unclear operational definition, and all conditions detrimental to quality.
#8 Drive Out Fear
The feeling of fear of employees to express their views, opinions, ideas must be avoided. They must feel secure to ensure quality and productivity in the workplace. For this, management needs to encourage effective two-way communication.
#9 Break Down Barriers Between Staff Areas
The management must break down barriers between department and staff areas. The practice of teamwork and group efforts must be encouraged. Employees can improve productivity by learning from each other and coordinating efforts regardless of their functional expertise. A feeling of team spirit must be developed between departments and employees.
#10 Eliminate Slogans and Targets
Deming suggested that signs, slogans, and targets to motivate and inspire employees must be eliminated It is necessary to focus on continuous improvement in quality. Control charts and other process control tools give employees direction and encouragement. Effective leadership and continuous improvement of the system helps to meet the target.
#11 Eliminate Numerical Quotas
Deming advocates that only focus on numerical quotas may diminish the quality. Managers should focus on quality instead of blindly pursuing numbers. Focusing on quality enables an organization to attract a potential and profitable market.
#12 Remove Barriers To Pride of Workmanship
The management should support employees to overcome the obstacles that may arise in the course of functioning. It is necessary to improve continuously the management system, inadequate instruction, faculty equipment, and defective materials. The management should eliminate the annual merit rating system.
#13 Institute a Vigorous Program of Education and Training
According to Deming’s 14 points, both management and workers must be educated and trained in the new methods to improve quality. Continuous improvement should be the purpose of every member of the organization. Introducing a teamwork culture and the philosophy of TQM is helpful to improve quality.
#14 Take Action To Accomplish Transformation
This is the last point from Deming’s 14 points, according to this, all organizational members must understand these 14 points and work together to reach quality goals. The top management must develop strategic plans to achieve the highest level of quality. Neither the worker nor the management alone improves the quality, thus, they should work together.