Approaches to Organizing
Approaches to organizing refer to the common thinking or norms and systems for structuring the organization. A number of approaches are developed for organizing.
The 3 approaches to organizing are classical, behavioral, and contingency approaches. They are:
- Classical Approach
- Behavioral Approach
- Contingency Approach
The classical approach represents the traditionally accepted norms and systems in organizing. This approach provides a universal perspective to organizing.
This approach focuses on efficiency and recommends that managers continually try to increase organizational efficiency to increase production. It includes the ideas and principles of classical management experts F.W. Taylor, Henry Fayol, Max Weber, etc. All these developers provided basically the same theories and assumptions.
F.W. Taylor, developer of scientific management theory. Scientific management is a philosophy and attitude, that discards the traditional method of, hit and miss, rule of thumb, and trial and error for managing work and workers. It is concerned with the development and application of scientific problems solving approaches.
Henry Fayol, developer of administrative management theory. According to Fayol, management is a distinct field of study and involves many managerial functions like forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. He developed fourteen principles of management that are universally applicable to all types of organizations.
Max Weber, developed a theory of bureaucracy. It is a form of organization characterized by the division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relations. He offered a bureaucratic model for the management of any large and complex organization.
The behavioral approach to organizing focuses on the behavior of managers as well as employees and human elements in the working environment. It emphasizes on psychological and social aspects of employees while creating the organizational structure. It is the approach that concerns scientific investigation, analysis, and understanding of human behavior in an organization.
Abraham Maslow, a human psychologist developed a theory of human needs. According to him, people always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence to take place. He classified human needs into five levels physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Douglas Mc Gregor proposed two distinct views on human beings; one negatively labeled theory X and another positively labeled theory Y. According to him, theory Y is a set of optimistic assumptions and theory X is a set of pessimistic assumptions about the works and workers.
Frederick Herzberg developed the two-factor theory for work motivation consisting of motivating factor and hygiene factor. Hygiene factors are external to the job itself. And, motivating factors are job centered and relate directly to the job itself. He suggested that enriched jobs are key to motivating employees.
Elton Mayo developed a human relations approach that suggests the highest employee satisfaction in the working environment, the highest the productivity of the organization will be.
A contingency approach is a situational approach that suggests, according to the change in environment, the structure of the organization should be changeable. This approach ignores the universally accepted principles. And it assumes that almost there is no best way to solve all kinds of organizational problems.
It consists of four variables that determine management practice,
- Organization Size
- Routineness of Technology
- Environmental Uncertainty
- Individual Difference
It emphasizes the best way to lead, plan, organize, and conduct managerial activities varies with the situation.
Also Read: Top 10 Theories of Management